Medical translation
Translation of medical texts (medical translation) is the translation from one language to another of specialized medical publications and texts of private character, the content of which is directly related to human health. The special position of this category of specialized translations is determined by the importance of any information to be translated, increased requirements to translation accuracy and confidentiality of private information, as well as pronounced heterogeneity of used terminology.
Subject of translation of medical texts
Medical texts of any level are subject to translation: epicrises, protocols of diagnostic tests or operations performed, summaries of the results of laboratory tests, functional tests, information for patients and/or doctors, leaflets-interfaces to medicines (instructions for use), recommendations for treatment, as well as publications on the activities of medical institutions and scientific articles on various sections of medicine.
There are a total of 38 main sections of medicine (first order, e.g., surgery, gynaecology and obstetrics, pediatrics, urology, etc.).
The number of subdivisions, and even more so of specific specialized areas, cannot be accurately counted.
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Variety of "medical" language vocabulary on the example of German and Russian medical texts
Since the "medical" language is not just an integral part, but an extended modification of the main language, in addition to the rules of the general language charter, the translations of such texts are also subject to additional rules related to the specifics of medical terminology and traditional forms (symbols, expressions) adopted in a particular country.
The "medical" German and "medical" Russian languages are particularly diverse - both rich and juicy in the "household" variant, which absorbed nomenclatorial terminology (in simple words, "medical Latin"), English designations and anglicisms, as well as all forms of abbreviations used in all categories.
In addition, the Russified and numbered variants of designations, for example, anatomical terms borrowed from other languages, are firmly rooted. Thus, up to 12-15 (!) expressions can be used to denote one and the same anatomical structure.
In any case, it would be wrong to think that medical texts are "ordinary" vocabulary interspersed with "Latin" insertions.
Each of these nomenclatures is based on the Latin language, using about 600 basic concepts of Latin (mostly) and Greek (about a third of all concepts) origin. The declination and word formation are subject to rules of "dead" Latin language being historically formed basis of creation and development of the anatomic nomenclature. However, considered invariable "medical Latin" has also fallen under the influence of a wide spread of anglicisms in the scientific world.
For example, there is a tendency to replace spelling "oe" and "ae" in nomenclature names with simple "e" (Oesophagus - Esophagus). The methods of formation of nomenclature terms, rules of their declination and abbreviation are described in detail in the works devoted to the International Anatomical Nomenclature and its application.